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寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆  

2009-10-02 11:51:24|  分类: 天涯鸿爪 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆
作者:陈若雷
  
  
  参加德国纽伦堡的武器枪械展览会后, 德国曼恩(MAN)集团公司派车将若雷等人接往巴伐利亚首府慕尼黑市,计划安排花二天时间沿A9高速公路,经罗滕堡、小镇丁克尔斯北尔、古城奥格斯堡等景点,边走边玩,最后抵达慕尼黑。
  
  这是我第三次去慕尼黑了。这次主要的使命是与德国曼恩集团商谈大客车驾驶室、底盘和模具制造技术的引进事宜。为了加速谈判进度,德国人专门配备了一台带写字台和沙发的特大号奔驰轿车,以便就会谈日程、内容等进行前期接触。全程陪同我们的德方企业高管有迈勃因先生,库劳先生和爱尔玛小姐,若雷在不久前的博文中提到在拼吃辣椒比赛中,我就输给了这位迈勃因先生。非常感谢的是,他这次特意在汽车冰箱里放了若雷喜欢的的德国的宝莱纳啤酒。
  若雷那些年除军品外,也花了不少时间对国外民用产品的引进下了不少功夫,可以说,现今国内引进生产的电冰箱、摩托车、大客车、大型载重卡车等不少民用产品都留有若雷工作的痕迹。
  
  巴伐利亚州的首府慕尼黑位于阿尔卑斯山北麓,系世界级的国际大都会。著名的西门子、宝马汽车、MBB、曼恩集团等大公司的总部,都设在慕尼黑。德国曼恩集团(MAN Group)是世界500强企业,创建于1758年,是世界重卡、客车和柴油发动机制造商之一,他们在1897年制造了世界上第一台狄塞尔柴油发动机。
  海因里希? 海涅曾说过:“慕尼黑处处洋溢着艺术和啤酒的气息。”慕尼黑把巴伐利亚古老的传统风情和朝气蓬勃的现代工业活力结合在一起。走进市区,随处都可见的16世纪的哥特式、古罗马式、巴洛克式古建筑以及林林总总的现代化的建筑,穿行于慕尼黑的大街小巷,随时都有在历史和现代之间变换的感觉。
  
  我想再访访德国最高峰楚格峰一带的阿尔卑斯山脉的绮丽风光,南德巴伐利亚州依萨河的万顷碧波;
  我想再看看路德维希二世的新天鹅堡,看看中古建筑的哥特式尖顶、巴洛克的穹顶和古罗马的廊柱;
  我想再尝尝浇满塔巴斯科(TABASCO)的煎肉饼, 切开后透着豆蔻香的烤猪肘和清爽翠绿的菜丸子;
  最不能少的,自然就是去坐坐满城的咖啡厅和啤酒馆,传说在德国,婴儿刚断奶,开始喂的就是啤酒。
  
  我们去了离慕尼黑不远的菲森小镇附近的新天鹅堡,沿途草原上的隐隐约约的牛羊群,一望无际的山间野花,使我想起了德国印象派画家科林特画笔下慕尼黑。新天鹅堡是德皇路德维希二世花了近二十年时间建成的古堡。城堡内大到廊柱,小到厕所里的水龙头,都采用了天鹅的造型,完全可以与巴黎的凡尔赛宫媲美。
  路德维希二世暗恋着奥地利皇后茜茜公主,竟然痴情地独守了终生。
  
  如果你看到慕尼黑的依萨河,你简直不敢想像离市区仅一箭之遥的地方,会有如此清澈的河流,这里没有泰晤士河或者塞纳河那些人工精雕细琢,依萨河两岸花木掩映,芳草萋萋,原始而自然。  
  
  玛丽恩广场附近的皇家啤酒馆(Hofbrauhaus)始建于1598年, 原是巴伐利亚公爵威廉五世为满足宫廷需要而兴建的啤酒酿造作坊。啤酒馆的正堂上挂着德皇威廉一世的画像,餐厅的拱顶天花板,画满了欧式古画,宴会厅外还有露天的啤酒花园。我们像在成都不去茶楼,钟情于去喝坝坝茶那样,毅然穿过大堂,去到后院,就为了那几株菩提树的浓荫。
  
  说到慕尼黑的啤酒馆,就不能不提到那件几乎延续了一百年的“公案”。
  这就是历史上著名的“啤酒馆暴动事件(Beer Hall Putsch)”,或“希特勒暴动事件”。

  事情的原委是: 1923年11月8日晚,巴伐利亚邦长官卡尔在慕尼黑一家啤酒店发表施政演说,巴伐利亚的其他领导人也要参加,希特勒决定带领一批冲锋队员绑架他们,胁迫他们发动暴动,对抗中央政府。当时,卡尔登上讲台正在讲话,罗姆和希姆莱率领的几百名冲锋队队员包围了大厅,希特勒爬上一张桌子,掏出手枪朝天棚打了一枪,然后大声宣布:“国民革命已经开始。我从现在起就是全德意志的领导者!”后因消息泄露等原因,希特勒党徒遭到警察和军队的搜捕,戈林负伤,鲁登道夫被当场逮捕,希特勒于两天后也被捕,在狱中写下了臭名昭著的《我的奋斗》一书。  
  若雷前几次到慕尼黑,就想去寻找这家啤酒馆,但总没有抽出时间。

  这些年若雷又看了不少有关的书,发觉关于希特勒发动啤酒馆政变的地点,竟然有几种不同的说法,美国威廉?夏伊勒的《第三帝国的兴亡--纳粹德国史》里,对此也是语焉不详。
  每到这个啤酒馆,许多导游都介绍说:“这是希特勒当年暴动的啤酒馆。1923年11月8日,希特勒带着冲锋队员冲进啤酒馆举行了政变,宣布国民革命已经开始。”
  
  据说慕尼黑市政府信息中心的官员也认为, 皇家啤酒馆(Hofbrauhaus)就是当年希特勒啤酒馆政变的地点,有一本叫《希特勒在慕尼黑》的书,也支持这个说法。
  其实,这些说法完全是出于误导或无知。
  
  那么,希特勒搞政变的那家啤酒馆到底叫什么名字?其真正的地址又在哪里呢?  
  我认为当年希特勒搞啤酒馆政变的地方是贝格勃劳凯勒啤酒馆,绝不是皇家啤酒馆。

  Hofbrauhaus 意为皇家啤酒馆,而贝格勃劳凯勒啤酒馆则是国民啤酒餐厅,一个是皇家,一个是市民。
  皇家啤酒馆在市中心的玛丽恩广场附近,而贝格勃劳凯勒啤酒馆却远在郊外的伊萨河畔加斯泰格地区。
  事实的真相是,在二次大战末期,慕尼黑的城市攻防战中遭到猛烈的炮击,到处千疮百孔,一片狼藉,贝格勃劳凯勒啤酒馆毁于战火,这家著名的啤酒馆当时在实体上就已经完全灰飞烟灭。
  
  那么,贝格勃劳凯勒啤酒馆(Buergerbraeukeller)的旧址究竟在何处呢?
  若雷认为,贝格勃劳凯勒啤酒馆的旧址,应当在慕尼黑的郊外,在依萨河畔的加斯泰格地区现今的罗莎海默大街、希尔顿大饭店和慕尼黑爱乐乐团的附近。
  
  
  
  
寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            慕尼黑新天鹅堡
  


寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            慕尼黑新天鹅堡
  


寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            新天鹅堡里的茜茜公主画像
  


寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            仿汽缸状的宝马汽车总部
  


寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            皇家啤酒馆乐队
  


寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            皇家啤酒馆
  

寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            依萨河风光
  
  

寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            依萨河的天鹅
  
  

寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            慕尼黑田园
  
  

寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            慕尼黑秋色
  
  

寻找慕尼黑和“那个”啤酒馆 - 陈若雷 - 陈若雷的博客
            慕尼黑圣母大教堂

 

参考文献:
  
  1. Earthtimes (ET):Earthtimes.org is staffed 24/7, that is every hour of every day, seven days a week and every day of the year by a small, hard working and dedicated team, committed to providing you with information and news, fluid and as it happens.
  
  2. Guide Loerke, whose previous job was tending golf courses, has lived in Germany for more than 30 years and is able to explain the German mindset, as well as why modern Germans do not enjoy Hitler walking tours. He starts the tour by holding up photos of Hitler as a baby and as a mediocre artist in 1913 drawing pictures for postcards. He describes Hitler's enthusiasm for the operas of Richard Wagner. The tour begins at the heart of the city, the Marienplatz, and continues to Koenigsplatz, site of the old Nazi Party headquarters and a rally site, taking in the Hofbraeuhaus, where Hitler honed his rhetoric and founded the Nazi party in 1920. In 1923, Hitler gathered his supporters at a public meeting at another beer hall, the Buergerbraeukeller, and marched to the city's landmark Feldherrnhalle, in an unsuccessful attempt to seize power, the Putsch. That beer hall was torn down decades ago, but the tourists can see where the Nazi Party affixed a plaque on the Feldherrnhalle to commemorate the Nazi men killed when police put the coup down. Older Munich residents remember when the plaque was there, because they were required to do a Heil Hitler salute when passing it. Those who hated the Nazis preferred to pass the site by a back lane, Viscardi Gasse, nicknamed "Evaders' Alley," so that they would not have to salute. The Nazi period rouses such agony among modern Germans that few would care to do a Nazi-sites walk as part of a happy holiday.Loerke tells the visitors that he sees a certain ambivalence about how to deal with the Nazi past among the Germans.
  
  3. Cinzia31.Mar.2005 06:30 hrs: The beer hall in question was the Buergerbraeukeller, located where the City Hilton now stands, in Rosenheimer Strasse near the Gasteig. Shortly having been released from a stint in Dachau, Georg Elser planted a bomb in the beer hall where Hitler was speaking on 8 November, 1939. (The occasion was to celebrate the Beer Hall Putsch of 9 November, 1923.) The bomb exploded and killed 8 National Socialists, but did not harm Hitler, who had already left the building. There is a plaque in the pavement to commemorate the event. If you stand by the entrance to the Rosenheimer Platz S-bahn station, facing the Hilton and Gasteig, you will see a big sculpture/fountain with a tuba straight ahead. Maybe 5 yards to the right of that, under the wall of the Hilton, you will find the plaque.
  
  4. Wikipedia encyclopedia:NSDAP meeting, 1923 ,Bürgerbräukeller after the 1939 assassination attempt.The Bürgerbräukeller was a large beer hall located in Munich, Germany, and by 1923 was one of the preferred gathering places of the NSDAP, or Nazi Party. It was one of the large beer halls of the Bürgerliches Brauhaus public limited company, and after its merger with Löwenbräu, the hall was transferred to that company. It was from there that Adolf Hitler launched his Beer Hall Putsch and marched to the Feldherrnhalle on November 8, 1923. After 1933, Hitler delivered a speech to the participants of his earlier failed coup every November 8. On November 8, 1939 he barely escaped an assassination attempt. Seven people were killed and sixty-three injured by a bomb blast, but Hitler escaped unharmed, because he had left the gathering a few minutes earlier than planned. The would-be assassin, Georg Elser, was executed in the Dachau concentration camp on April 9, 1945.
  
  5. The structure was severely damaged at the time of the assassination attempt and never reconstructed; however, Hitler did return to deliver a speech on November 8, 1942 in relation to Stalingrad. It was located on Rosenheimer Street in the neighborhood of Haidhausen, roughly between today's Gasteig Culture Center and the Hotel City Hilton. Today a memorial plaque dedicated to Georg Elser can be found there, about five meters towards the Hotel City from a water sculpture of a tuba; the plaque is on the ground adjacent to the archway.
  

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